Utilizing Unified Power Flow Controller for Voltage Stability Improvement of the Electric Power Transmission System of Ghana

Main Article Content

William Duodu Asihene
Francis Boafo Effah
Erwin Normanyo



Interconnecting power transmission systems provide reliability of electric power supply. The security of the system is however questioned when a disturbance in any part of the interconnected system causes instability in the entire network. Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), which is a member of the flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) family, has the capability of controlling active and reactive power flow in a transmission line thereby improving the voltage stability of the system especially at the 500 kV configuration level. The performance of a 161-kV UPFC modelled in SimPowerSystems is tested on Ghana’s power transmission network.  The optimal placement of the UPFC is done using fast voltage stability index (FVSI) and maximum loadability assessment (MLA). The results show that the device improved the connecting bus voltage from 0.88 p.u. to 0.98 p.u. Active power loss in the network was also reduced from 13.40 MW to 10.39 MW when the UPFC was in circuit.

Keywords: Ghana, Stability, Transmission system and Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)


S. D. Choudante, and A. A. Bhole, “A review: voltage stability and power flow improvement by using UPFC controller”, International Conference on Computation of Power, Energy, Information and Communication, Melmaruvathur, India, pp. 462 – 465, 2018.

N. Voropai, S. Podkovalnikov, and K. Osintsev, “From interconnections of local electric power systems to global energy interconnection”, Global Energy Interconnection, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 4 – 10, 2018.

T. Kerdphol, F. Rahman, and Y. Mitani, “Virtual inertia control application to enhance frequency stability of interconnected power systems with high renewable energy penetration”, Energies, vol. 11, issue 4, pp. 1 - 16, 2018.

L. L. Grigsby, The electric power engineering handbook - five volume set, CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA, 438 pp, 2018.

K. R. Padiyar, and A. M. Kulkarni, Dynamics and control of electric transmission and microgrids, Wiley Publishers, West Sussex, UK, 2nd edition, 485 pp., 2019.

M. Banafer, and M. Biswal, “Investigation of power system cascading failure and the causes”, International Conference on Power, Energy and Environment: Towards Smart Technology, Shillong, India, pp. 1 – 5, 2018.

J. Modarresi, E. Gholipour, and A. Khodabakhshian, “A comprehensive review of the voltage stability indices”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 1 – 12, 2016.

P. Thannimalai, R. R. Raman, P. Nair, and K. Nithiyananthan, “Voltage stability analysis and stability improvement of power system”, International Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, vol. 5, issue 2, pp. 2088 – 8708, 2015.

H. Kianersi, and H. Asadi, “Voltage stability improvement by using FACTS elements with economic consideration”, Ciência e Natura, vol 37, pp. 162 – 167, 2015.

G. Deb, K. Chakraborty, and S. Deb, “Voltage stability analysis using reactive power loading as indicator and its improvement by FACTS device” In 2016 IEEE 1st International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems, Delhi, India, pp. 1 – 5, 2016.

W. Aslam, Y. Xu, A. Siddique, and F. M. Albatsh, “Implementation of series FACTS devices, SSSC and TCSC to improve power system stability”, 13th IEEE Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Wuhan, China, pp. 2291-2297, 2018.

A. K. Dwivedi, and S. Vadhera, “Reactive power sustainability and voltage stability with different FACTS devices using PSAT”, 6th International Conference on Signal Processing and Integrated Networks, Uttar Pradesh, India, pp. 248 – 253, 2019

M. Yesilbudak, S. Ermis, and R. Bayindir, “Investigation of the effects of FACTS devices on the voltage stability of power systems”, IEEE 6th International Conference on Renewable Energy Research and Applications, San Diego, California, pp. 1080 – 1085, 2017.

S. Rotra, I. Kaur, and K. K. Sharma, “Analysis of active and reactive power and voltage control in the power structure with the help of unified power flow controller”, Cognitive Informatics and Soft Computing, Springer, Singapore pp. 485 – 494, 2019.

L. Hongmei, S. Haobo, W. Qi, and Z. Yunfan, “Research on the installation location and parameter configuration method of upfc in energy internet, proceedings of the IEEE conference on energy internet and energy system integration, Beijing, China, pp. 1 - 6, 2017.

T. P. G. T. A. Priyankara, M. J. L. R., Fernando, I. A. K. Sandeepa, N. M. K. D. Bandara, H. W. D. Hettiarachchi, and K. T. M. U. Hemapala, “Design, simulation and implementation of a upfc” for transmission line model, in 2017 innovations in power and advanced computing technologies, Tamil Nadu, India, pp. 1- 6, 2017.

S. Kannan, and S. J. Miah, “Integration of knowledge management and business intelligence for lean organisational learning by the digital worker”, in: applying business intelligence initiati- ves in healthcare and organisational settings, IGI Global Publishers, Glasgow, Scotland, 1st edition, pp. 130 – 140, 2019.

F. M. Albatsh, S. Ahmad, S. Mekhilef, H. Mokhlis, and M. A. Hassan, “Optimal placement of unified power flow controllers to improve dynamic voltage stability using power system variable based voltage stability indices”, PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 1 – 32, 2015.

B. Singh, P. Tiwari, and S. N. Singh, “Enhancement of power system performances by optimally placed facts controllers by using different optimization techniques in distribution systems, 5th IEEE Uttar Pradesh Section International Conference on Electrical, Electronics and Computer Engineering, Gorakhpur, Pradesh, India, pp. 1 – 7, 2018.

D. Sen, M. Gupta, M. Shegaonkar, S. Das, and P. Acharjee, “Optimal location determination of upfc based on techno-economic criteria and security constraints”, In 2018 International Conference on Power Energy, Environment and Intelligent Control, Noida, India. pp. 534 – 539, 2018.

A. Thamilmaran, and P. Vijayapriya, “Location of UPFC based on critical bus ranking index”, In Soft Computing for Problem Solving, Springer, Singapore pp. 795 – 805, 2020.

J. E. Essilfie, J. Tlusty, and P. Santarius, “Using SVC to improve voltage stability of the Ghana power net- work”, Przegląd Elektrotechniczny, vol. 89, no. 5, pp. 47 - 53, 2013.

J. E. Essilfie, Z. Muller, J. Svec, and J. Tlusty, “STATCOM effect on voltage stability in Ghanaian electrical grid”, Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Scientific Conference, Brno, Czech Republic, pp. 235 - 240, 2014.

Mathworks, simpowersystems™, user’s
guide, The MathWorks Inc., Natick, Massachusetts, 78 pp, 2016.

V. M. Perelmuter, Electrotechnical systems: simulation with simulink and simpowersystem, CRC Press, Florida, USA, 1st edition, 441 pp., 2013.

M. Taleb, A. Salem, A. Ayman, M. A. Azma, and M. A. Abido, “Advanced Technique for Optimal Allocation of Static Var Compensators in Large-scale Interconnected Networks”, In 2017 Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Beijing, China, pp. 73 – 78, 2017.