Main Article Content
Induction Generator, ELC, Bidirectional Converter, Dummy Load, Battery
Induction generators are widely used in small-scale power plants driven by renewable energy, such as wind, mini/micro-hydro, tidal wave, biomass, biogas, etc. In applying this generator to a micro-hydropower plant, it is usually equipped with an ELC (Electronic Load Controller), which regulates the frequency to remain constant at a safe tolerance limit (49.8 – 50.2 Hz). However, this system is still not optimal because the ELC dumps its excess power into the dummy load. This paper proposes an ELC system that can adjust the frequency to remain constant without wasting excess power from the generator. This system uses the working principle of a bidirectional converter, which can regulate the flow of power from the generator and dummy load in two directions. In the proposed system, the dummy load uses a battery to store excess electrical energy and be utilized and reused when needed. Performance analysis of the proposed system uses simulation with MATLAB Simulink software. The induction generator used has a voltage specification of 380 Y, 50 Hz, 1420 rpm, 3.5 A, and 1.5 kW. The analysis results show that the developed ELC design can adjust the frequency in the value range of 49.98-50.01 Hz during load changes with a range of 955 Watt to 1.045 Watt, with the response time reaching its steady-state value of 0.1-0.4 seconds.
AM. Sayed, SM. Sharaf, SE. Elmasry, M. Elharony, "Dynamic Response of a Grid Connected Wind Farm with Different Types of Generators," IJPEDS, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 85-98, 2012.
R. Nazir, A. Pawawoi and R. Amalia, "Harmonic Effects Analysis of Electronic Loads Controller on Self Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) Operations," Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, vol. 8, pp. 273-280, 2017.
R. C. Bansal, "Three-Phase Self-Excited Induction Generators: An Overview," TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, vol. 20, pp. 292-293, 2005.
M. H. Haque, S.," A Novel Method of Evaluating Performance Characteristics of a Self-Excited Induction Generator", IEEE Transcations on Energy Conversion, Vol.. 24, NO. 2, June 2009, pp. 358-365.
Bhim Singh, Senior Member, IEEE, S. S. Murthy, Life Senior Member, IEEE, and Sushma Gupta, "Analysis and Design of Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generators," IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, vol. 21, pp. 285-292, 2006.
B. Singh, S.S. Murthy and S. Gupta, "Analysis and implementation of an electronic load controller for a self-excited induction generator," IEE Proc.-Gener. Transm. Distrib, vol. 151, no. 1, pp. 51-60, 2004.
Bhim Singh, S. S. Mwthy and Sushma Gupta, "An Improved Electronic Load Controller for Self-Excited Induction Generator in Micro-Hydel Applications", IEEE Proceeding, 0-7803-7906-3/03/$17.00 @2003, pp. 2741-2746.
Refdinal Nazir, Andi Pawawoi & Farah Rahmadhani, "The Energy Storage System on the Batteries with PWM Method to Regulate the Output Voltage of SEIG," Proceeding of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, 2011.
K. Jayavelu, "Power Quality Improvement using STATCOM", International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 11, 2015.
Juan Dixon, Luis Morán, José Rodríguez, and Ricardo Domke, "Reactive Power Compensation Technologies, State of-the-Art Review", Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume: 93, Issue: 12, Dec. 2005.
Satyanarayan Gorantla, Goli Ravi Kumar, "Harmonic Compensation using STATCOM for SEIG Feeding Single-Phase Load Connected between Different Phases", Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vol. 6, No. 3, June 2017, pp. 489-496.
Mohammed Shafiuddin, Mohammed Nazeeruddin, "Mitigation of the Statcom with Energy Storage for Power Quality Improvement", International Journal of Science and Engineering Research, Volume 3 Issue 9, 2014.
Bhim Singh and V. Rajagopal, "Battery Energy Storage Based Voltage and Frequency Controller for Isolated Pico Hydro Systems", Journal of Power Electronics, Vol. 9, No. 6, November 2009, pp. 874-883.
Elder, J.M.; Boys, J.T. & Woodward, J.L, "Self-Excited Induction in induction generators," IEE Proceedings, vol. 130, no. 2, pp. 103-108, 1984.
B. Nouha, S. Souhir and K. M.B.A, "Three-Phase Self-Excited Induction generator analysis in stand-alone mode," in International Renewable Energy Congress, Tunisia, 2015.
R. Nazir , A. Pawowoi, F. Akbar and A. Dorinza, "Differences in the impact of harmonic distortion due to the installation of electronic load controller in self-excited induction," International Journal of Power Electronics and Drive System (IJPEDS), vol. 10, pp. 104-116, 2019.
M. H. Rashid, POWER ELECTRONICS HANDBOOK, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2010.
S. N, "Control Techniques of Three Phase PWM Rectifier," International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, vol. 8, no. 2S, pp. 148-152, 2018.
S. Kharjule, "Voltage Source Inverter," in International Conference on Energy System and Applications, Pune, 2015.
K. Suprita Barman, Purobi Patowary, "A Phase Shift Control based DSTATCOM for Mitigation of Voltages Sag and Voltage Swell in Distribution Systems," International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1111-1116, 2017.
Minister of Energy and Mineral Rrsources Republic of Indonesia, "Regulation of the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources About Electric Power System Network Rules”, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, 2020.
Ghulam Dastagir and Luiz A. C. Lopes, Senior Member, IEEE, "Voltage and Frequency Regulation of a Stand-Alone Self-Excited Induction Generator," in IEEE Canada Electrical Power Conference, Canada, 2007.
Ion Catalin Petrea, Student Member, IEEE, Marinescu Corneliu, Member, IEEE, "An Efficient Voltage and Frequency Regulator for Stand-Alone Induction Generators," in IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Cambridge, 2008.
Noshin Omar , Mohamed Abdel Monema, Yousef Firouz , Justin Salminen , Jelle Smekens, Omar Hegazy , Hamid Gaulous , Grietus Mulder , Peter Van den Bossche , Thierry Coosemans , Joeri Van Mierlo, "Lithium iron phosphate based battery – Assessment of the aging parameters and development of cycle life model," Applied Energy, vol. 113, pp. 1575-1585, 2014.